Michigan Persons with Disabilities Civil Rights Act

PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
Act 220 of 1976
AN ACT to define the civil rights of persons with disabilities; to prohibit discriminatory practices, policies,
and customs in the exercise of those rights; to prescribe penalties and to provide remedies; and to provide for
the promulgation of rules.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1992, Act 123, Imd. Eff. June 29,
1992;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
The People of the State of Michigan enact:
ARTICLE 1
37.1101 Short title.
Sec. 101. This act shall be known and may be cited as the “persons with disabilities civil rights act”.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1102 Opportunity guaranteed; civil right; accommodation of person with disability; undue
hardship.
Sec. 102. (1) The opportunity to obtain employment, housing, and other real estate and full and equal
utilization of public accommodations, public services, and educational facilities without discrimination
because of a disability is guaranteed by this act and is a civil right.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in article 2, a person shall accommodate a person with a disability for
purposes of employment, public accommodation, public service, education, or housing unless the person
demonstrates that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25,
1990;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1103 Definitions.
Sec. 103. As used in this act:
(a) “Alcoholic liquor” means that term as defined in section 105 of the Michigan liquor control code of
1998, 1998 PA 58, MCL 436.1105.
(b) “Commission” means the civil rights commission established by section 29 of article V of the state
constitution of 1963.
(c) “Controlled substance” means that term as defined in section 7104 of the public health code, 1978 PA
368, MCL 333.7104.
(d) Except as provided under subdivision (f), “disability” means 1 or more of the following:
(i) A determinable physical or mental characteristic of an individual, which may result from disease,
injury, congenital condition of birth, or functional disorder, if the characteristic:
(A) For purposes of article 2, substantially limits 1 or more of the major life activities of that individual
and is unrelated to the individual’s ability to perform the duties of a particular job or position or substantially
limits 1 or more of the major life activities of that individual and is unrelated to the individual’s qualifications
for employment or promotion.
(B) For purposes of article 3, is unrelated to the individual’s ability to utilize and benefit from a place of
public accommodation or public service.
(C) For purposes of article 4, is unrelated to the individual’s ability to utilize and benefit from educational
opportunities, programs, and facilities at an educational institution.
(D) For purposes of article 5, substantially limits 1 or more of that individual’s major life activities and is
unrelated to the individual’s ability to acquire, rent, or maintain property.
(ii) A history of a determinable physical or mental characteristic described in subparagraph (i).
(iii) Being regarded as having a determinable physical or mental characteristic described in subparagraph (i
).
(e) “Drug” means that term as defined in section 7105 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL
333.7105.
(f) For purposes of article 2, disability does not include either of the following:
(i) A determinable physical or mental characteristic caused by the current illegal use of a controlled
substance by that individual.
(ii) A determinable physical or mental characteristic caused by the use of an alcoholic liquor by that
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individual, if that physical or mental characteristic prevents that individual from performing the duties of his
or her job.
(g) “Person” includes an individual, agent, association, corporation, joint apprenticeship committee,
joint-stock company, labor union, legal representative, mutual company, partnership, receiver, trust, trustee in
bankruptcy, unincorporated organization, this state, or any other legal, commercial, or governmental entity or
agency.
(h) “Person with a disability” or “person with disabilities” means an individual who has 1 or more
disabilities.
(i) “Political subdivision” means a county, city, village, township, school district, or special district or
authority of this state.
(j) “State average weekly wage” means the state average weekly wage as determined by the Michigan
employment security commission under section 27 of the Michigan employment security act, 1936 (Ex Sess)
PA 1, MCL 421.27.
(k) “Temporary employee” means an employee hired for a position that will not exceed 90 days in
duration.
(l) “Unrelated to the individual’s ability” means, with or without accommodation, an individual’s disability
does not prevent the individual from doing 1 or more of the following:
(i) For purposes of article 2, performing the duties of a particular job or position.
(ii) For purposes of article 3, utilizing and benefiting from a place of public accommodation or public
service.
(iii) For purposes of article 4, utilizing and benefiting from educational opportunities, programs, and
facilities at an educational institution.
(iv) For purposes of article 5, acquiring, renting, or maintaining property.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25,
1990;Am. 1992, Act 123, Imd. Eff. June 29, 1992;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998;Am. 1999, Act 201, Eff. Mar. 10,
2000.
Compiler’s note: Enacting section 1 of Act 201 of 1999 provides:
“Enacting section 1. This amendatory act is curative and intended to correct any misinterpretation of legislative intent in the court of
appeals decision in Doe v Department of Corrections, 236 Mich App 801 (1999). This legislation further expresses the original intent of
the legislature that an individual serving a sentence of imprisonment in a state or county correctional facility is not within the purview of
this act.”
ARTICLE 2
37.1201 Definitions.
Sec. 201. As used in this article:
(a) “Employee” does not include an individual employed in domestic service of any person.
(b) “Employer” means a person who has 1 or more employees or a person who as contractor or
subcontractor is furnishing material or performing work for the state or a governmental entity or agency of the
state and includes an agent of such a person.
(c) “Employment agency” means a person regularly undertaking with or without compensation to procure
employees for an employer or to procure for employees opportunities to work for an employer and includes
an agent of such a person.
(d) “Genetic information” means information about a gene, gene product, or inherited characteristic of an
individual derived from the individual’s family history or a genetic test.
(e) “Genetic test” means the analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and those proteins and
metabolites used to detect heritable or somatic disease-related genotypes or karyotypes for clinical purposes.
A genetic test must be generally accepted in the scientific and medical communities as being specifically
determinative for the presence, absence, or mutation of a gene or chromosome in order to qualify under this
definition. Genetic test does not include a routine physical examination or a routine analysis including, but not
limited to, a chemical analysis of body fluids unless conducted specifically to determine the presence,
absence, or mutation of a gene or chromosome.
(f) “Labor organization” includes:
(i) An organization of any kind, an agency or employee representation committee, group, association, or
plan in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with
employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours, or other terms or conditions of
employment.
(ii) A conference, general committee, joint or system board, or joint council which is subordinate to a
national or international labor organization.
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(iii) An agent of a labor organization.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990;Am. 2000, Act 32, Imd. Eff. Mar. 15,
2000.
37.1202 Employer; prohibited conduct; exceptions; access to genetic information.
Sec. 202. (1) Except as otherwise required by federal law, an employer shall not:
(a) Fail or refuse to hire, recruit, or promote an individual because of a disability or genetic information
that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to perform the duties of a particular job or position.
(b) Discharge or otherwise discriminate against an individual with respect to compensation or the terms,
conditions, or privileges of employment, because of a disability or genetic information that is unrelated to the
individual’s ability to perform the duties of a particular job or position.
(c) Limit, segregate, or classify an employee or applicant for employment in a way which deprives or tends
to deprive an individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affects the status of an employee
because of a disability or genetic information that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to perform the duties
of a particular job or position.
(d) Fail or refuse to hire, recruit, or promote an individual on the basis of physical or mental examinations
that are not directly related to the requirements of the specific job.
(e) Discharge or take other discriminatory action against an individual on the basis of physical or mental
examinations that are not directly related to the requirements of the specific job.
(f) Fail or refuse to hire, recruit, or promote an individual when adaptive devices or aids may be utilized
thereby enabling that individual to perform the specific requirements of the job.
(g) Discharge or take other discriminatory action against an individual when adaptive devices or aids may
be utilized thereby enabling that individual to perform the specific requirements of the job.
(h) Require an individual to submit to a genetic test or to provide genetic information as a condition of
employment or promotion.
(2) Subsection (1) does not prohibit an individual from voluntarily providing to an employer genetic
information that is related to the employee’s health or safety in the workplace. Subsection (1) does not
prohibit an employer from using genetic information received from an employee under this subsection to
protect the employee’s health or safety.
(3) This section shall not apply to the employment of an individual by his or her parent, spouse, or child.
(4) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2), no employer may directly or indirectly acquire or have
access to any genetic information concerning an employee or applicant for employment, or a member of the
employee’s or applicant’s family.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998;Am. 2000, Act 32, Imd. Eff. Mar. 15,
2000.
37.1203 Employment agency; prohibited conduct.
Sec. 203. An employment agency shall not fail or refuse to refer for employment, or otherwise
discriminate against an individual because of a disability or classify or refer for employment an individual on
the basis of a disability that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to perform the duties of a particular job or
position.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1204 Labor organization; prohibited conduct.
Sec. 204. A labor organization shall not:
(a) Exclude or expel from membership, or otherwise discriminate against a member or applicant for
membership because of a disability that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to perform the duties of a
particular job or position which entitles the individual to membership.
(b) Limit, segregate, or classify membership, or applicants for membership, or classify or fail or refuse to
refer for employment an individual in a way which would deprive or tend to deprive an individual of
employment opportunities, or which would limit employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect the
status of an employee or of an applicant for employment, because of a disability that is unrelated to the
individual’s ability to perform the duties of a particular job or position.
(c) Cause or attempt to cause an employer to violate this article.
(d) Fail to fairly and adequately represent a member in a grievance process because of the member’s
disability.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12,
1998.
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37.1205 Apprenticeship, on the job, or other training or retraining programs; discrimination
prohibited.
Sec. 205. An employer, labor organization, or joint labor management committee controlling
apprenticeship, on the job, or other training or retraining programs shall not discriminate against an individual
because of a disability in admission to, or employment or continuation in, a program established to provide
apprenticeship or other training.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1206 Prohibited notices, advertisements, inquiries, applications, and records.
Sec. 206. (1) An employer, labor organization, or employment agency shall not print or publish or cause to
and is required under this article to purchase any equipment or device to accommodate the person with a
disability, the total purchase cost required to be paid by that person for that equipment or device is limited to
an amount equal to the state average weekly wage. If the cost of an accommodation under this subsection
exceeds the limitation established for that accommodation, the accommodation imposes an undue hardship on
that person. If the cost of the accommodation does not exceed the limitation established for that
accommodation, the accommodation does not impose an undue hardship on that person.
(3) Except as provided in subsections (7), (13), and (17), if the person employs 4 or more employees but
fewer than 15 employees and is required under this article to purchase any equipment or device to
accommodate the person with a disability, the total purchase cost required to be paid by that person is limited
to an amount equal to 1.5 times the state average weekly wage. If the cost of an accommodation under this
subsection exceeds the limitation established for that accommodation, the accommodation imposes an undue
hardship on that person. If the cost of the accommodation does not exceed the limitation established for that
accommodation, the accommodation does not impose an undue hardship on that person.
(4) Except as provided in subsections (6), (7), (13), and (17), if the person employs 15 or more employees
but fewer than 25 employees and is required under this article to purchase any equipment or device to
accommodate the person with a disability, the total purchase cost required to be paid by that person is limited
to an amount equal to 2.5 times the state average weekly wage. If the cost of an accommodation under this
subsection exceeds the limitation established for that accommodation, the accommodation imposes an undue
hardship on that person. If the cost of the accommodation does not exceed the limitation established for that
accommodation, the accommodation does not impose an undue hardship on that person.
(5) Except as provided in subsections (6), (7), (13), and (17), if the person employs 25 or more employees
and the total purchase cost of any equipment or device required to accommodate an employee under this
article is equal to or less than 2.5 times the state average weekly wage, the accommodation does not impose
an undue hardship on that person.
(6) Except as provided in subsections (7), (13), and (17), if the person employs 15 or more employees and
the total purchase cost of any equipment or device required to accommodate an employee under this article is
equal to or less than 2.5 times the state average weekly wage, the accommodation does not impose an undue
hardship on that person.
(7) Subsections (2) to (6) do not limit the cost of reasonable routine maintenance or repair of equipment or
devices needed to accommodate a person with a disability under this article.
(8) Except as provided in subsections (13) and (17), if the person employs fewer than 4 employees and is
required to hire or retain 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters to accommodate the person with a
disability in performing the duties of his or her job, the cost required to be paid by that person is limited to an
amount equal to 7 times the state average weekly wage for the first year the person with a disability is hired,
promoted, or transferred to that job, and 5 times the state average weekly wage for each year after the first
year the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job. If the cost of an accommodation
under this subsection exceeds the limitation established for that accommodation, the accommodation imposes
an undue hardship on that person. If the cost of the accommodation does not exceed the limitation established
for that accommodation, the accommodation does not impose an undue hardship on that person.
(9) Except as provided in subsections (13) and (17), if the person employs 4 or more employees but fewer
than 15 employees and is required to hire or retain 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters to
accommodate the person with a disability in performing the duties of his or her job, the cost required to be
paid by that person is limited to an amount equal to 10 times the state average weekly wage for the first year
the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job, and 7 times the state average weekly
wage for each year after the first year the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job.
If the cost of an accommodation under this subsection exceeds the limitation established for that
accommodation, the accommodation imposes an undue hardship on that person. If the cost of the
accommodation does not exceed the limitation established for that accommodation, the accommodation does
not impose an undue hardship on that person.
(10) Except as provided in subsections (12), (13), and (17), if the person employs 15 or more employees
but fewer than 25 employees and is required to hire or retain 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters to
accommodate the person with a disability in performing the duties of his or her job, the cost required to be
paid by that person is limited to an amount equal to 15 times the state average weekly wage for the first year
the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job, and 10 times the state average
weekly wage for each year after the first year the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to
that job. If the cost of an accommodation under this subsection exceeds the limitation established for that
accommodation, the accommodation imposes an undue hardship on that person. If the cost of the
accommodation does not exceed the limitation established for that accommodation, the accommodation does
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not impose an undue hardship on that person.
(11) Except as provided in subsections (12), (13), and (17), if the person employs 25 or more employees
and the cost required to hire or retain 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters to accommodate the
person with a disability in performing the duties of his or her job is less than or equal to 15 times the state
average weekly wage for the first year the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that
job, and is less than or equal to 10 times the state average weekly wage for each year after the first year the
person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job, the accommodation does not impose an
undue hardship on that person.
(12) Except as provided in subsections (13) and (17), if the person employs 15 or more employees and the
cost required to hire or retain 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters to accommodate the person with
a disability in performing the duties of his or her job is less than or equal to 15 times the state average weekly
wage for the first year the person with a disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job, and is less
than or equal to 10 times the state average weekly wage for each year after the first year the person with a
disability is hired, promoted, or transferred to that job, the accommodation does not impose an undue hardship
on that person.
(13) If the person with a disability is a temporary employee, the limitations established for
accommodations under subsections (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (8), (9), (10), (11), and (12) are reduced by 50%.
(14) A person who employs fewer than 15 employees is not required to restructure a job or alter the
schedule of employees as an accommodation under this article.
(15) Job restructuring and altering the schedule of employees under this article applies only to minor or
infrequent duties relating to the particular job held by the person with a disability.
(16) If a person can accommodate a person with a disability under this article only by purchasing
equipment or devices and hiring or retaining 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters, the person shall,
subject to subsections (2) to (13) and subsection (17), purchase the equipment or devices and hire or retain 1
or more individuals as readers or interpreters to accommodate that person with a disability. However, if the
person can accommodate that person with a disability by purchasing equipment or devices or by hiring or
retaining 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters, the person shall consult the person with a disability
and, subject to subsections (2) to (13) and subsection (17), choose whether to purchase equipment or devices
or hire or retain 1 or more individuals as readers or interpreters.
(17) Subsections (2) to (16) do not apply to either of the following:
(a) A public employer. As used in this subdivision, “public employer” means this state or a political
subdivision of this state.
(b) An organization exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the internal revenue code of 1986.
(18) A person with a disability may allege a violation against a person regarding a failure to accommodate
under this article only if the person with a disability notifies the person in writing of the need for
accommodation within 182 days after the date the person with a disability knew or reasonably should have
known that an accommodation was needed.
(19) A person shall post notices or use other appropriate means to provide all employees and job applicants
with notice of the requirements of subsection (18).
History: Add. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1211 Powers of person under article.
Sec. 211. A person may, under this article, do 1 or more of the following:
(a) Establish employment policies, programs, procedures, or work rules regarding the use of alcoholic
liquor or the illegal use of drugs.
(b) Apply different standards of compensation, or different terms, conditions, or privileges of employment
pursuant to a bona fide seniority or merit system, transfer system, scheduling system, assignment system, or
attendance plan if those standards of compensation or terms, conditions, or privileges of employment are not a
subterfuge to evade the purposes of this article.
(c) Establish uniform policies requiring employees who have been absent from work because of illness or
injury to submit evidence of the ability to return to work. This subdivision does not allow a person to establish
a policy requiring only persons with disabilities to submit evidence of the ability to return to work.
(d) Either of the following:
(i) Prohibit an employee who is being compensated under the worker’s disability compensation act of
1969, 1969 PA 317, MCL 418.101 to 418.941, for an injury arising out of and in the course of his or her
employment with that person from returning to work in a restructured job.
(ii) Require an employee who is being compensated under the worker’s disability compensation act of
1969, 1969 PA 317, MCL 418.101 to 418.941, for an injury arising out of and in the course of his or her
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employment with that person to return to work as provided by law, if the person accommodates the employee
as required under this article.
History: Add. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1212 Education and training programs.
Sec. 212. The department of civil rights shall offer education and training programs to employers, labor
organizations, and employment agencies to assist employers, labor organizations, and employment agencies
in understanding the requirements of this article.
History: Add. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990.
37.1213 Article not in conflict with civil rights act.
Sec. 213. Nothing in this article shall be construed to conflict with the Elliott-Larsen civil rights act, Act
No. 453 of the Public Acts of 1976, being sections 37.2101 to 37.2804 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.
History: Add. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990.
37.1214 Accommodation not construed as preferential treatment or employee benefit.
Sec. 214. For purposes of this act, an accommodation required under this article shall not be construed to
be preferential treatment or an employee benefit.
History: Add. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990.
ARTICLE 3
37.1301 Definitions.
Sec. 301. As used in this article:
(a) “Place of public accommodation” means a business, educational institution, refreshment, entertainment,
recreation, health, or transportation facility of any kind, whether licensed or not, whose goods, services,
facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations are extended, offered, sold, or otherwise made available
to the public.
(b) “Public service” means a public facility, department, agency, board, or commission owned, operated, or
managed by or on behalf of this state or a subdivision of this state, a county, city, village, township, or
independent or regional district in this state or a tax exempt private agency established to provide service to
the public, except that public service does not include a state or county correctional facility with respect to
actions or decisions regarding an individual serving a sentence of imprisonment.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1999, Act 201, Eff. Mar. 10, 2000.
Compiler’s note: Enacting section 1 of Act 201 of 1999 provides:
“Enacting section 1. This amendatory act is curative and intended to correct any misinterpretation of legislative intent in the court of
appeals decision in Doe v Department of Corrections, 236 Mich App 801 (1999). This legislation further expresses the original intent of
the legislature that an individual serving a sentence of imprisonment in a state or county correctional facility is not within the purview of
this act.”
37.1302 Prohibited conduct.
Sec. 302. Except where permitted by law, a person shall not:
(a) Deny an individual the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges,
advantages, and accommodations of a place of public accommodation or public service because of a disability
that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to utilize and benefit from the goods, services, facilities, privileges,
advantages, or accommodations or because of the use by an individual of adaptive devices or aids.
(b) Print, circulate, post, mail, or otherwise cause to be published a statement, advertisement, or sign which
indicates that the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and
accommodations of a place of public accommodation or public service will be refused, withheld from, or
denied an individual because of a disability that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to utilize and benefit
from the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations or because of the use by an
individual of adaptive devices or aids, or that an individual’s patronage of or presence at a place of public
accommodation is objectionable, unwelcome, unacceptable, or undesirable because of a disability that is
unrelated to the individual’s ability to utilize and benefit from the goods, services, facilities, privileges,
advantages, or accommodations or because of the use by an individual of adaptive devices or aids.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1303 Exemptions.
Sec. 303. This article shall not apply to a private club, or other establishment not in fact open to the public,
except to the extent that the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of the
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private club or establishment are made available to the customers or patrons of another establishment that is a
place of public accommodation, or if it is licensed, chartered, or certified by the state or any of its political
subdivisions.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977.
ARTICLE 4
37.1401 “Educational institution” defined.
Sec. 401. As used in this article, “educational institution” means a public or private institution or a separate
school or department of a public or private institution, includes an academy, college, elementary or secondary
school, extension course, kindergarten, nursery, school system, school district, or university, and a business,
nursing, professional, secretarial, technical, or vocational school, and includes an agent of an educational
institution.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981.
37.1402 Educational institution; prohibited conduct.
Sec. 402. An educational institution shall not do any of the following:
(a) Discriminate in any manner in the full utilization of or benefit from the institution, or the services
provided and rendered by the institution to an individual because of a disability that is unrelated to the
individual’s ability to utilize and benefit from the institution or its services, or because of the use by an
individual of adaptive devices or aids.
(b) Exclude, expel, limit, or otherwise discriminate against an individual seeking admission as a student or
an individual enrolled as a student in the terms, conditions, and privileges of the institution, because of a
disability that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to utilize and benefit from the institution, or because of
the use by an individual of adaptive devices or aids.
(c) Make or use a written or oral inquiry or form of application for admission that elicits or attempts to
elicit information, or make or keep a record, concerning the disability of an applicant for admission for
reasons contrary to the provisions or purposes of this act.
(d) Print or publish or cause to be printed or published a catalog or other notice or advertisement indicating
a preference, limitation, specification, or discrimination based on the disability of an applicant that is
unrelated to the applicant’s ability to utilize and benefit from the institution or its services, or the use of
adaptive devices or aids by an applicant for admission to the educational institution.
(e) Announce or follow a policy of denial or limitation through a quota or otherwise of educational
opportunities of a group or its members because of a disability that is unrelated to the group or member’s
ability to utilize and benefit from the institution or its services, or because of the use by the members of a
group or an individual in the group of adaptive devices or aids.
(f) Develop a curriculum or utilize textbooks and training or learning materials which promote or foster
physical or mental stereotypes.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12,
1998.
37.1403 Educational institution; plan.
Sec. 403. An educational institution may adopt and carry out a plan to eliminate present effects of past
discriminatory practices or assure equal opportunity with respect to persons with disabilities if the plan is filed
with the commission, under rules of the commission and the commission has not disapproved the plan.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
Administrative rules: R 37.27 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.
ARTICLE 5
37.1501 Definitions.
Sec. 501. As used in this article:
(a) “Housing accommodation” includes improved or unimproved real property, or a part thereof, which is
used or occupied, or is intended, arranged, or designed to be used or occupied, as the home or residence of 1
or more persons.
(b) “Immediate family” means a spouse, parent, child, or sibling.
(c) “Real estate broker or salesman” means a person, whether licensed or not, who, for or with the
expectation of receiving a consideration, lists, sells, purchases, exchanges, rents, or leases real property, or
who negotiates or attempts to negotiate any of these activities, or who holds himself out as engaged in these
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activities, or who negotiates or attempts to negotiate a loan secured or to be secured by a mortgage or other
encumbrance upon real property, or who is engaged in the business of listing real property in a publication; or
a person employed by or acting on behalf of any of these persons.
(d) “Real estate transaction” means the sale, exchange, rental, or lease of real property, or an interest
therein.
(e) “Real property” includes a building, structure, mobile home, real estate, land, mobile home park, trailer
park, tenement, leasehold, or an interest in a real estate cooperative or condominium.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977.
37.1502 Owners, persons engaging in real estate transactions, real estate brokers, and real
estate salesmen; prohibited conduct.
Sec. 502. (1) An owner or any other person engaging in a real estate transaction, or a real estate broker or
salesman shall not, on the basis of a disability of a buyer or renter, of a person residing in or intending to
reside in a dwelling after it is sold, rented, or made available, or of any person associated with that buyer or
renter, that is unrelated to the individual’s ability to acquire, rent, or maintain property or use by an individual
of adaptive devices or aids:
(a) Refuse to engage in a real estate transaction with a person.
(b) Discriminate against a person in the terms, conditions, or privileges of a real estate transaction or in the
furnishing of facilities or services in connection with a real estate transaction.
(c) Refuse to receive or fail to transmit a bona fide offer to engage in a real estate transaction from a
person.
(d) Refuse to negotiate for a real estate transaction with a person.
(e) Represent to a person that real property is not available for inspection, sale, rental, or lease when in fact
it is available, fail to bring a property listing to a person’s attention, refuse to permit a person to inspect real
property, or otherwise deny or make real property unavailable to a person.
(f) Make, print, circulate, post, or mail or cause to be made or published a statement, advertisement, or
sign, or use a form of application for a real estate transaction, or make a record of inquiry in connection with a
prospective real estate transaction, which indicates, directly or indirectly, an intent to make a limitation,
specification, or discrimination with respect to a real estate transaction.
(g) Offer, solicit, accept, use, or retain a listing of real property with the understanding that a person may
be discriminated against in a real estate transaction or in the furnishing of facilities or services in connection
with a real estate transaction.
(h) Discriminate against a person in the brokering or appraising of real property.
(2) A person shall not deny a person access to or membership or participation in a multiple listing service,
real estate brokers’ organization or other service, organization, or facility relating to the business of selling or
renting real property, or discriminate against a person in the terms or conditions of that access, membership,
or participation.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1992, Act 123, Imd. Eff. June 29, 1992;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12,
1998.
37.1503 Certain rentals excepted from MCL 37.1502.
Sec. 503. Section 502 shall not apply to the rental of a housing accommodation in a building which
contains housing accommodations for not more than 2 families living independently of each other, if the
owner or a member of the owner’s immediate family resides in 1 of the housing accommodations, or to the
rental of a room or rooms in a single housing dwelling by a person if the lessor or a member of the lessor’s
immediate family resides therein.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977.
37.1504 Financial assistance or financing; prohibited conduct.
Sec. 504. A person shall not discriminate on the basis of disability in making or purchasing loans for
acquiring, constructing, improving, repairing, or maintaining real property, or in providing other financial
assistance secured by or otherwise related to real property.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1992, Act 123, Imd. Eff. June 29, 1992;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12,
1998.
37.1505 Information as to applicant’s credit worthiness.
Sec. 505. Nothing in this article shall be considered to prohibit an owner, lender, or his or her agent from
requiring that an applicant who seeks to buy, rent, lease, or obtain financial assistance for housing
accommodations supply information concerning the applicant’s financial, business, or employment status or
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other information designed solely to determine the applicant’s credit worthiness, but not concerning
disabilities for reasons contrary to the provisions or purposes of this act.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1506 Prohibited representations.
Sec. 506. A person shall not represent, for the purpose of inducing a real estate transaction from which he
or she may benefit financially or otherwise, that a change has occurred or will or may occur in the
composition with respect to persons with disabilities of the owners or occupants in the block, neighborhood,
or area in which the real property is located, or represent that this change will or may result in the lowering of
property values, an increase in criminal or antisocial behavior, or a decline in the quality of schools in the
block, neighborhood, or area in which the real property is located.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1506a Real estate transaction; prohibited conduct; “covered multifamily dwellings”
defined.
Sec. 506a. (1) A person shall not do any of the following in connection with a real estate transaction:
(a) Refuse to permit, at the expense of the person with a disability, reasonable modifications of existing
premises occupied or to be occupied by the person with a disability if those modifications may be necessary
to afford the person with a disability full enjoyment of the premises. In the case of a rental, the landlord may,
if reasonable, make permission for a modification contingent on the renter’s agreement to restore the interior
of the premises to the condition that existed before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted.
(b) Refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when the
accommodations may be necessary to afford the person with a disability equal opportunity to use and enjoy
residential real property.
(c) In connection with the design and construction of covered multifamily dwellings for first occupancy
after March 13, 1991, fail to include all of the following features:
(i) The dwellings have at least 1 building entrance on an accessible route, unless that is impractical because
of the terrain or unusual characteristics of the site.
(ii) The public and common use portions of the dwellings are readily accessible to and usable by persons
with disabilities.
(iii) All the doors designed to allow passage into and within all premises within the dwellings are
sufficiently wide to allow passage by persons with disabilities in wheelchairs.
(iv) All premises within covered multifamily dwellings contain an accessible route into and through the
dwelling; light switches, electrical outlets, thermostats, and other environmental controls in accessible
locations; reinforcements in bathroom walls to allow later installation of grab bars; and kitchens and
bathrooms designed so that an individual in a wheelchair can maneuver about the space.
(2) As used in this section, “covered multifamily dwellings” means buildings consisting of 4 or more units
if the buildings have 1 or more elevators, and ground floor units in other buildings consisting of 4 or more
units.
History: Add. 1992, Act 123, Imd. Eff. June 29, 1992;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1507 Person subject to article; plan.
Sec. 507. A person subject to this article may adopt and carry out a plan to eliminate present effects of past
discriminatory practices or assure equal opportunity with respect to individuals who have disabilities, if the
plan is filed with the commission under rules of the commission and the commission has not disapproved the
plan.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
Administrative rules: R 37.27 et seq. of the Michigan Administrative Code.
ARTICLE 6
37.1601 Administration of act; rules.
Sec. 601. This act shall be administered by the civil rights commission. The commission may promulgate
rules to carry out this act pursuant to Act No. 306 of the Public Acts of 1969, as amended, being sections
24.201 to 24.315 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981.
37.1602 Prohibited conduct.
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Sec. 602. A person or 2 or more persons shall not do the following:
(a) Retaliate or discriminate against a person because the person has opposed a violation of this act, or
because the person has made a charge, filed a complaint, testified, assisted, or participated in an investigation,
proceeding, or hearing under this act.
(b) Aid, abet, incite, compel, or coerce a person to engage in a violation of this act.
(c) Attempt directly or indirectly to commit an act prohibited by this act.
(d) Willfully interfere with the performance of a duty or the exercise of a power by the commission or any
of its authorized representatives.
(e) Willfully obstruct or prevent a person from complying with this act or an order issued.
(f) Coerce, intimidate, threaten, or interfere with any person in the exercise or enjoyment of, or on account
of his or her having aided or encouraged any other person in the exercise or enjoyment of, any right granted or
protected by article 5.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1992, Act 123, Imd. Eff. June 29, 1992.
37.1603 Adjustment order; violation of terms prohibited.
Sec. 603. A person shall not violate the terms of an adjustment order made under this act.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977.
37.1604 Other acts not invalidated.
Sec. 604. Nothing in this act shall be interpreted as invalidating any other act that establishes or provides
programs or services for persons with disabilities.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff. Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1605 Complaints.
Sec. 605. A complaint alleging an act prohibited by this act shall be subject to the same procedures as a
complaint alleging an unfair employment practice under Act No. 453 of the Public Acts of 1976, as amended,
being sections 37.2101 to 37.2804 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.
History: 1976, Act 220, Eff. Mar. 31, 1977;Am. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981.
37.1606 Civil action; commencement; “damages” defined; compensation for lost wages;
notice as condition to bringing civil action; applicability of subsection (5).
Sec. 606. (1) A person alleging a violation of this act may bring a civil action for appropriate injunctive
relief or damages, or both.
(2) An action commenced pursuant to subsection (1) may be brought in the circuit court for the county
where the alleged violation occurred, or for the county where the person against whom the civil complaint is
filed resides or has his or her principal place of business.
(3) As used in subsection (1), “damages” means damages for injury or loss caused by each violation of this
act, including reasonable attorneys’ fees.
(4) The amount of compensation awarded for lost wages under this act for an injury under article 2 shall be
reduced by the amount of compensation received for lost wages under the worker’s disability compensation
act of 1969, 1969 PA 317, MCL 418.101 to 418.941, for that injury and by the present value of the future
compensation for lost wages to be received under the worker’s disability compensation act of 1969, 1969 PA
317, MCL 418.101 to 418.941, for that injury.
(5) A person with a disability may not bring a civil action under subsection (1) for a failure to
accommodate under article 2 unless he or she has notified the person of the need for accommodation as
required under section 210(18). This subsection does not apply if the person failed to comply with the
requirements of section 210(19).
History: Add. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981;Am. 1990, Act 121, Imd. Eff. June 25, 1990;Am. 1998, Act 20, Imd. Eff.
Mar. 12, 1998.
37.1607 Diminishment of rights prohibited.
Sec. 607. This act shall not diminish the right of a person to seek direct and immediate legal or equitable
remedies in the courts of this state.
History: Add. 1980, Act 478, Imd. Eff. Jan. 20, 1981.

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